For a person planning the AT, sometimes there is too much info. It is a bit like drinking from a fiouncere hose!
This doc will attempt to make planning for the trail a bit less daunting and a little more organized. Think of this doc as a jumping-off point to explore other, more detailed, resources.
Updated Feb 2020.
To walk. To see. To see what you see.
—Benton MacKaye on the purpose of the Appalachian Trail
The Appalachian Trail is a footpath that winds its way along mountains of the East Coast. A trail that fires the imagination of many backpackers. Other trails may be more remote or have more of a wilderness feel, but there is something special to the Appalachian Trail. In the long green tunnel are memories to be made, sights to see and experiences to be had. It is a trail with a deep past and a vibrant culture.
Planning for an extended trek on the Appalachian Trail can be easy. There are probably hundreds of books, websites, articles, and guides on how to backpack on this trail.
For the same reason, planning a hike on the Appalachian Trail can be intimidating.
Esp if a person is new to backpacking and/or long-distance hiking, the sheer amount of resources can be overwhelming. Where do you start??!?!?!
And that’s the purpose of this document. A handout-like doc to simplify the planning on hiking this trail. It will not answer every question you may have..but it will hopefully point you in the right direction.
The Appalachian Trail is a wonderful place. I can honestly say those five months I spent hiking from Georgia to Maine was perhaps one of the biggest watershed moments in my life.
Perhaps it will be the same for you.
As always, please consult other resources before going on an extended trek in the mountains. The Appalachian Trail may be one of the easier long trails…but it ain’t easy. 🙂
The Appalachian Trail at a glance
- Administered by the Appalachian Trail Conservancy
- Under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service
- Is approx 2180 miles long
- The southern terminus is at Springer Mtn, GA
- Northern Terminus is at Katahdin in Baxter State Park, ME
- Goes through 14 states, 6 National Parks and 8 National Forests
- The lowest point is 124 ft at Bear Mtn, NY….highest point is 6643′ at Clingman’s Dome in the Smokies
- Goes above treeline in Vermont (with a quick side trip), New Hampshire, and Maine
- Well marked with a series of white blazes; side trails are marked with blue blazes
- Take most hikers 5-7 months to hike the trail
- An average thru-hike costs ~$1000 per month.
- Other facts can be found here
- Walking all or part of the trail is a wonderful experience you will not forget!
Major Concerns of Appalachian Trail Hikers
This section will attempt to address the range of concerns and direct the aspiring AT hiker to the right resource.
Permits, Passes, and Registration
Three places on the trail require a permit:
- Shenandoah National Park permit is free and obtained at the front entrance.
- Starting in 2016, Baxter State Park started requiring AT hikers to register before getting to the park. Details from Baxter SP itself may be found HERE. Note that as of 2017, BSP is putting a cap on how many of these permits will be issued. Some additional information that is useful.
And, as of 2015, there is a hiker registration process to help spread out the number of people starting the Appalachian Trail. Currently (Feb 2020) it is a voluntary process.
In 2017, the Appalachian Mountain Club is rolling out a Campsite Program and Thru-Hiker Pass program. A more economical way to pay for campsites in the White Mountains. The program also includes two free baked goods and a bowl of soup at the AMC huts, and a 10% discount on supplies at the AMC stores. Cool!
Equipment, planning, and logistics for the Appalachian Trail
Equipment is perhaps the least important part of an AT thru-hike. Equipment, of course, is important, but there are other aspects of backpacking that are more crucial to a good hike. (Mental and physical health, the views, where the best beer may be located. :D)
Having said that, here is a quick and dirty synopsis of basic equipment questions.
If you are new to backpacking, you probably don’t know where to start. What gear should I even bring? What is really needed to start backpacking? The first concept to keep in mind is that there is no “best” piece of gear. Rather it is the best gear for your personal style of hiking.
I wrote a little guide aimed towards people new to backpacking. The general concepts apply to almost any three-season mountain environment. It covers the basics of shelters, stoves, water treatment, footwear, etc.
Once you have your basic gear together, it is time to backpack! Nothing can teach you the basics of backpacking like backpacking. 🙂 Go out there, try your new gear and have fun.
What’s this lightweight backpacking I’ve heard about?
If you are doing an extended trek in the mountains, or a traditional backpacker who camps more than hikes (with the corresponding gear load), you may want to consider a lighter than normal load. The lighter your base pack weight (all your gear in the pack, minus food, water, and fuel), the easier it is to hike. On an extended hike of the Appalachian Trail, you are walking more than camping. You will be carrying your gear all day. As such, you may want to consider taking gear that is light while meeting your own personal comfort and safety levels.
A great book that tells the how and why of lightweight backpacking (rather than the what to take) is Lighten Up!. Rather than gear specific, it gives traditional backpackers the understanding and concepts on how to lighten their loads.
There are other resources (many!) on how to lighten up your gear loads, but if you are new to lightweight backpacking, the above resources can get you started.
If you want to delve more into this subject, I have an article on lightweight backpacking as well.
OK..you have your gear and have an idea of what works for you. Now you want to know specifically how to hike the Appalachian Trail.
Guidebooks and Maps
Confused on what to use?
Most AT hikers seem to like:
- The Guthook (Atlas Guides) app
- The AT Guide or the ALDHA Companion (seems the AT Guide is somewhat more popular)
- The AT print maps from the ATC for those increasingly rare people who like well, print maps
- Other resources are less used
There are two major guidebooks for hiking the length of the Appalachian Trail. These guides are pretty much functionally the same. Each will tell you what permits you need, how to arrange shuttles, getting to a trail terminus, regulations for specific parks, what towns are near the trail and what services and supplies they provide, etc.
The two major guidebooks for the Appalachian Trail are:
ALDHA Companion: This book put out by the Appalachian Long Distance Hikers Assoc has a team of many volunteer field editors who compile and update the information for the Appalachian Trail. With the payment of a $10 annual fee, an online edition may be downloaded as well for printing out; non-members may purchase it for $8 for a download only. Due to the paper and ink being used, printing out the Companion may be more cost-effective for section hiking. See the ALDHA Companion page for more details. Naturally, you can load a PDF on a smart device, Kindle, etc.
The AT Guide: An effort of David Miller (AWOL), Southbound and Northbound editions are both available. The AT Guide is also avail as a PDF download.
AWOL also offers 12, 15 and 18 MPD plans avail for downloading. This means, roughly, a 6 month, a 5 month or a 4-month thru-hike. The guides are older, but still work overall.
Other sources of info you may find useful are:
Appalachian Trail Data Book: Another great book to buy, esp if you just want the info in a quick and dirty form, (you don’t need to know where all the AYCE buffets are!), is the Appalachian Trail Data Book. Concise. Light. Inexpensive. Still a good complement to the above guides as well.
Appalachian Trail Conservancy Guidebooks: The ATC puts out a set of 11 guides for the trail. More for background, history and cultural info than logistics. Best for post-trail recollection. Note: This link also includes the maps in addition to the guidebooks. ATC members get a good discount on the set of about $50 or so.
Appalachian Trail map pack: While it has been argued you don’t absolutely need maps to hike the well-marked Appalachian Trail, I still like having maps so I can eyeball what is up ahead and know where I am. YMMV. As before, ATC members get a great discount. In the past, the ATC has done a map pack sale just prior to thru-hiker season.
Pocket Profile Maps: This set of 22 Pocket Profile maps provides a waterproof, tear-proof, and super lightweight reference for the Appalachian Trail.
Postholer Appalachian Trail Pocket Maps: The 3 volume Appalachian Trail Map series is created digitally using the most current landcover, hydrology, elevation, etc, data available. Most of the data is less than 6 years old. 7 oz per book. 3 books cover the trail. ~$35 ea.
National Geographic – Trails Illustrated also offers a complete map set for the Appalachian Trail
Appalachian Trail Database: Free and extensive online planning database. Town info, post office info, etc.
Appalachian Trail Distance Calculator: Get a good idea of how long it is between major points on the trail. Very good tool for planning.
WhiteBlaze Pages Similar to the ALDHA Companion and the AT Guide. (Note: I volunteered as a moderator on WB. I receive no financial compensation.)
Smart Phone apps: As most hikers carry a smart device (phone or tablet), increasingly more hikers are using the devices for information while on the trail. Here are some popular apps below. As always, never rely on electronic devices exclusively as they are prone to failure. See further along in this doc for more information on WiFi and cell coverage.
Steven Read’s AT topo maps: Topo maps for the AT with some basic trail info as well. Currently for the Android only. iOS app may be on the way.
Offline Maps: Offline Maps done by Noam Gal for the AT, PCT, and CDT that makes use of the Backcountry Navigator app.
Postholer has a neat little,and free, databook app that also has the weather and makes it easy to post journal entries on the Postholer site. For Android only at this time.
Hikerbot has an open source app with trail, campsite, water, resupply, and other pertinent info.The app is free and the data is freely available to anyone under the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial 3.0 license. For Android platforms at this time.
Gaia GPS features the entire trail via the NatGeo layer.
Resupply is very easy on the Appalachian Trail. Towns/resupply areas are generally not very far from the trail (and sometimes just on it), usually have good-sized grocery stores, other facilities and generally make hiking the Appalachian Trail easy on a logistic level. Generally speaking, most hikers will resupply every 3-5 days on the Appalachian Trail.
There are three major ways of resupplying on the AT (and long trails in general):
Maildrops is simply mailing a pre-made food parcel to a post office, hostel or other areas in town on the trail. The advantage of this method is that the supplies are waiting in a package for you.
A hiker will pick up their package, dump the food in their pack and go. The disadvantage of this method is that you are dependent on Post Office hours (if not sending to a hostel), have to pay for shipping and need a person on the home front to send out packages for you. Unless you have special dietary needs or on a time crunch, there is no real reason to use maildrops on a regular basis. (The exception is a bounce box; see below).
As mentioned, most towns on the AT have good-sized grocery stores and other resupply areas.
If you use maildrop, be sure to mail out like the example below shows:
c/o General Delivery
Some Town, TN 55555
Please hold for AT hiker, ETA 7/23/12
The post office will generally hold your package for up to two weeks. Be sure to have an ID ready when you pick up your package. The guidebooks mentioned above will have the specific information for where to mail packages. If possible, you may want to mail a package directly to a hostel or business rather than the post office. The hours will be longer/more flexible.
Somewhat in the maildrop category are ew commercial enterprises are mailing out food to hikers. Quite a few. They regularly post on forums and Facebook advertising their services. Some hikers are using Amazon Pantry Service or the Walmart equivalent, too.
Buy as you go:
With good-sized grocery stores in many of the towns near the trail, it is very easy to resupply as you go. Unless a hiker is in a time crunch or has dietary restrictions, this method works best for most thru-hikers.
More common on Western hiking trails, this method works well if you know there is going to be an area with hard or expensive resupply (e.g. Fontana Dam or Monson). Simply buy supplies in a larger town and mail your package ahead. It can be a nice compromise between buying as you go and having to eke out supplies in smaller villages and stops.
Whichever method you use, I strongly suggest reading The Trek’s AT Resupply Guide. It is an excellent overview of what services are available and where you may want to do maildrop vs buying as you go.
Bounce Box: Drift (or Bounce) Boxes come in handy for the self-supported AT backpacker if not as used as much in the past. If you do not do mail drops from home, the drift box is valuable for containing memory cards, batteries, map sections, seasonal items, and other items you use but not on a regular basis. Simply mail it ahead, take out what you need when you get to a town and then mail it up the trail again. A sturdy cardboard box may work (I used a bright orange Home Depot bucket on the CDT. No trouble finding the bucket whenever I went to the town. :D)
Also, new commercial enterprises are mailing out food, gear, and other sundries to hikers. Quite a few may be found via a Google search such as, but not limited to, Trail Supply Co, Outdoor Herbivore, Zero Day Resupply, and Sonora Pass Resupply . They regularly post on forums and Facebook advertising their services. Some hikers are using Amazon Pantry Service or the Walmart equivalent, too.
Cost of a Thru-Hike
As mentioned, an average thru-hike costs about $1000 a month once on the trail. If you take a longer hike, you will need more food, possibly run into weather issues, probably incur more town costs and may need to replace more gear.
A good, rough equation for overall expenses is this idea:
COST OF GEAR TO START + TRANSPORTATION TO TRAIL + (MONTHS ON TRAIL * 1000) + TRANSPORTATION FROM TRAIL. = ROUGH COST ESTIMATE
The cost of your initial gear and transportation to and from the trail will differ from hiker to hiker. Do you already have the gear? Or is this your first long hike and buying all new lightweight gear? Do you live in Boston with (relatively) easy and cheap transport up and down from either terminus or are you coming from Seattle and need to get some expensive flights to and from each terminus (or a long ass bus ride!)
I feel pretty comfortable on the $1000/mo figure once on the trail. This figure includes food, town stops, and some typical gear replacements (shoes and socks come immediately to mind).
These figures are for a middle of the road hike. People who want more luxurious accommodations vs hostels, take side trips with car rentals (Hey! Let’s check out some Civil War sites for a few days), expensive restaurant meals vs a burger and beer, etc. will spend more.
Other people do avoid some of these costs by having family members ship food/finance part of the hike, do “work for stays” at some hostels (more common on the AT versus other trails), depend on hiker boxes or depend on the charity of others. “Jester” wrote a detailed account of his 2015 expenses as well that is perhaps more realistic.
More thrifty hikers, esp those with experience and know the AT well and/or are disciplined, might be able to go more frugal at ~$800/mo. (And, as always, I am sure there are exceptions. 🙂 )
Section Hiking vs. Thru-Hiking
Not everyone can take 5-7 months off to backpack. Family obligations, finances, and other factors make walking the entire length of the trail in one shot impossible. Many people find section hiking to be a great way to experience a long hike of the AT without disrupting their lives.
The advantages of a section hike (besides being less disruptive) are that you can see the trail in prime condition vs the varied weather often entailed in a thru-hike. See New England at peak foliage season. Hike the southern Appalachians when spring wildflowers are blooming, etc.
Whether completing the AT as a single thru-hike or over a few years in sections, it is a great accomplishment full of many memories.
Northbound vs. Southbound vs. Flipping
Northbound means you “Walk with Spring” and follow the natural progression of the weather as you head north. A hiker will typically end in Maine at the cusp (of even past) Fall. It is the most popular way to hike and means, esp at the start of the trail, the services and towns will be busy. I I will say that Katahdin is perhaps the most dramatic finish of any of the long trails. A Typical start is anywhere from mid-late Feb to mid-April.
Going Southbound means fewer people. You are also walking into less daylight. For the hiker who wants (potentially) an experience with fewer people, this is a great way to go. This option also works well for many people who are newly graduated from college. Beware of the notorious Maine black flies at the start! Depending on the snow and mud conditions of Katahdin and Maine in general, a typical southbound start is about late June per the Maine Appalachian Trail Club/ATC. Many start earlier. Please see the ATC website resources (below) , Baxter Info, and www.baxterstateparkauthority.com for more details. This WhiteBlaze sticky is also useful.
A final option is “flip-flopping”. For those who want a unique hike (or to avoid colder weather and/or crowds) flip-flopping is a way to do the trail that while not logistically convenient, may be better timing wise. One popular variation is to start at Springer Mtn, hike to Harpers Ferry, WV and then flip up to Katahdin and hike south to finish the trail at Harpers Ferry. There are many variations on this possibility.
Internet access, WiFi, and Cell Phone coverage
WiFi and 4G coverage is going to be available in most towns along the trail. Some hostels provide this service and most town libraries.
Cell coverage is going to be spotty in the valleys and will probably be fine on the ridges and in most towns. Northern New England will probably have spotty coverage overall.
If you take a mobile device, please be courteous of your fellow hiker. A good rule of thumb is to use the phone like you are going to the bathroom: In private and away from where people can see you. Stepping off the trail 10ft will go a long ways to making everyone happier. 🙂
REMEMBER: A MOBILE DEVICE IS NOT A SUBSTITUTE FOR GEAR, EXPERIENCE, AND KNOWLEDGE. DO NOT DEPEND ON A MOBILE DEVICE FOR SAFETY. THINK OF IT AS AN ADDITIONAL TOOL AND NOT THE ONLY ONE.
There are many shelters on the AT. They are generally spaced in 8-10 mile intervals.
While they can be handy on a cold, rainy, night they can often be full. They are first-come, first-served. Other than the Smokeys, there are no spots reserved for thru-hikers. Be prepared to tent (or tarp) it. Not taking your own shelter is irresponsible. Besides, do you really want to camp in a shelter with 16+ people on a rainy night? 🙂
Camping along the trail
There are often spots for camping near the shelters (but not always). In many places along the trail, there are great flat spots to get away from the crowded shelters and offer great views in addition to solitude.
In some places such as New Hampshire and Vermont, fragile and/or high use areas are paysites. Areas near the sites may have restricted camping.
Bears and Critters
Honestly, use some common sense and bears are not an issue on the Appalachian Trail. The Appalachian Trail Conservancy is suggesting a bear canister for the entire trail. Other than a very small ~5-mile section near Jarrod Gap in Georgia for camping use only, a bear canister is not required. Personally, I think other bear precautions are more effective. Rodents, deer, and other animals are more likely to be an issue versus bears.
The AT, more so than the other trails, is great terrain for dogs. But dogs require special consideration. The Appalachian Trail Conservancy has a great page on issues concerning dogs on the trail. As with all things pertaining to the trail, please be courteous of your fellow hikers. Many dog owners find using a tent, rather than a shelter, helps eliminate many of the conflicts found on the trails with dogs and trail users.
And, if you have a dog, please respect the rules. Have the leash on when required. Do not try to sneak your dog through areas where they are not allowed. And please do not get a fake service dog patch. You are only making it more difficult for those with a legitimate need for a service animal.
Fires, droughts, trail closures, and other updates
There is from fire damage still on the trail from December 2016 as one example. For any recent trail updates, please check the ATC update page. This information may change your schedule, logistics, or related plans.
The head stuff
A hike of any long trail is more mental than physical. The challenges, thoughts, and even the culture of hiking a long trail are more than just what equipment to bring and what books are needed. It is about the experience and perhaps some thoughts on the trail. I’ve touched upon some of the topics that often crop up in long-distance hiking circles.
Training for a hike
As mentioned, a long hike is more mental than physical. However, if you are in good health to being with, you may find that the initial part of the hike is easier. I never did understand the school of thought that you can get in shape on the trail. Why not be in shape in the first place?
Besides making your initial hiking easier, it is necessary for good health off trail, too. Besides, TV sucks…get out there and do something fun. 😉
Purity on the trail
Hiking the trail pure is walking every white blaze on the Appalachian Trail. More common to Eastern hiking than Western hiking (where trails are often viewed as a corridor). Some will argue that unless you walk the designated path than you really haven’t walked the trail. Others hold to the corridor approach. (Damn Western hikers! :D).
I won’t get into that silly argument.
I’ll just say when you complete the trail and apply for your 2000 Miler Patch (if you choose), just be honest about what you’ve done. I suspect, unless you opted to drive around and not walk, you’ll receive a tchotchke for your wall. 🙂
Remember, hiking the AT is a privilege and not a right. Always say “Please” and “Thank you”, don’t act like you are entitled to anything because you are long-distance hiker, and respect not only your fellow hikers but also the people in the towns you are entering. Remember, your actions can impact the hikers coming after you.
ALDHA has excellent guidelines at the “Endangered Services Campaign” site.
Don’t think your behavior matters? Check out this letter from Baxter State Park.
What is a NoBo? A PUD? AYCE? Whaaaa??!?!
Like every sub-culture, the AT culture has its own lingo, history, and quirks. This little guide may help in understanding some of the nomenclatures of trail talk. Many of the AT terms have made their way over to other trails. (Damn Eastern hikers! 😉 )
Is the AT really a wilderness experience?
The AT, except for maybe a few isolated parts in New England (and perhaps even smaller parts of the southern Appalachians), is not really a wilderness experience. The corridor is narrow and is often well used. It is, however, a wildness experience. A refuge where hikers can experience,if not wilderness, at least a wild, beautiful and inspiring area. Being on Franconia Ridge on a gorgeous crisp day? Seeing the first wildflowers of Spring? Hearing the loons on a quiet lake in Maine? The AT may not be a wilderness, but it has wildness in spades.
Interesting discussion. More thoughts about this “head stuff”?
The Owens wrote what I consider to be the best document on the more philosophical points of long-distance hiking. Gear, clothing, books…easy stuff. Head stuff? Not so much. Read the Thru-Hiker Papers for a great overview on not just long hikes on the AT..but any trail.
I’ve hiked the AT. Now what?
Most people who’ve hiked the AT fall in one of two camps:
- People who are glad they did it. It is an experience they will always look on fondly but will move on to other things. Long-distance hiking is not a lifestyle for them
- Then there are those who “have the curse of gypsy blood” and pine for another long hike. Perhaps you’ll do the Pacific Crest Trail? Walk the Grand Canyon? Bike across America? Or other adventures?
If you fall into the second category..you are ruined (in a good way). After many miles, I still don’t have an answer. I do have many questions, though. 🙂
There are many resources for hiking the Appalachian Trail. Countless books, web sites, movies, etc. Below are some resources I have found useful:
Appalachian Trail Conservancy: The first place to stop for info on the AT. They have an excellent page to answer all kinds of questions (transit? Permits? fees?) about the AT. An older, but relevant, document makes for a good read.
Appalachian Trail Wiki Page: Wikipedia has a good overview of the AT
Whiteblaze.net: The archives on the site make good reference material. Otherwise, Facebook, Reddit, and The Trek have more current discussion.
Reddit AT Forum: A nctive forum for answering Appalachian Trail questions
Facebook: Many “Class of XX” forums and other Appalachian Trail resources found online. Can be a good resource for virtually meeting fellow AT travelers before the hike.
The Trek (previously Appalachian Trials🙂 A very popular AT website that is mainly articles based. Think of it as “Buzz Feed for AT hikers”
The SummitPost AT page has an excellent page with mileage overview for easy planning. The mileage is somewhat outdated but close enough for initial planning esp if section hiking.
Trailjournals.com Has MANY journals from current and previous Appalachian Trail hikers
My Own Journal: The writings of a younger me. More hair, a stronger Rhody accent, and a heavier pack. My life was changed from this hike!
Then the Hail Came: A raw and sometimes eloquent account of hiking the AT.
While surfing the web can be informative and fun, nothing like a book for inspiring you to get on the trail. Here are some books I’ve read and enjoyed.
On The Beaten Path: Perhaps my favorite book on hiking the Appalachian Trail. Treating the AT what it is like for many of us..a pilgrimage in the mountains.
Walking With Spring: An account of the first thru-hike of the AT by Earl Shaffer in 1948. Simple and compelling.
The Appalachian Trail: Calling Me Back to the Hills: An excellent photography book on the AT by Bart Smith. The text is from Earl Shaffer on his 1998 thru-hike.
The Appalachian Trail Reader: My copy of this book is very dog-eared. This book collects writings on geology, history and the culture surrounding the AT. It also features musings on the the trail and the Appalachians in general from the raw, but powerful voices, of everyday hikers to the eloquent musings of Thoreau and Wendell Berry. Highly recommended.
AWOL On the Appalachian Trail: An enjoyable and well-written account of hiking the AT by David “AWOL” Miller. He is the editor of the Appalachian Pages guidebook.
Walkin’ On The Happy Side of Misery: A humorous account of an actual thru-hike on the AT
A Walk in the Woods: aka “That Book!”. Not the best book about the AT…but an excellent book about stumbling through the woods. Gave me a few laughs and makes a great “airport” book.
A Walk for Sunshine: If you are thinking of hiking for charity, this account by Jeff Alt may be useful. Warning: I’m in this book. 😉
…and sometimes you just want to see and hear the Appalachian Trail
Southbounders: A fictional account of southbounding on the Appalachian Trail
Trek: Well regarded documentary on a thru-hike of the AT
Appalachian Impressions: A documentary not just about the AT hiking culture, but also the land and history around the AT. This documentary was featured on PBS.
Flip Flop Flippin’ : By Scott “Squatch” Herriott of “Walk” fame. A very good look at the crazy and wonderful culture of the AT.
And, lastly, many vlogs of YouTube-based AT hikers.
Also, check out Books for Hikers. It has many, many, many, many books, videos, etc listed about the Appalachian Trail. It has resources for other trails as well.
Best of luck on your Appalachian Trail journey! If you have any additional questions, please give me a shout!